Saturday, June 6, 2020
Hotels boost corporate customer loyaltyÃ through the service quality of the front office personnel INTRODUCTION This research, through a review of literature published on the subject, considers how hotel organisations might boost the repeat patronage of their corporate customers. Changes in the economy and the overall culture of corporate business travel, such as the increase in use of technology instead of trips, have significantly impacted the hotel industry in recent years. These changes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhave altered the possibilities for service delivery and have heightened the importance of promoting a quality ethicÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Harrington and Akehurst 2000: 133). This is a particularly important consideration in UK hotel organisations, as they have been found to be more complacent and produce lower customer satisfaction than their global competitors (Meyer et al 1999: 374). As Meyer et al (1999) notes, in regards to satisfying the business traveller, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âUS hotels showed a better understanding than German or UK hotels of their customers wants and needs that in turn leads to more effective services, higher levels of service quality and customer satisfaction (375). The UK is responding, addressing the use of part-time staff and high turnover through initiatives such as Investors in People, which increases training provision to leisure and tourism workers, amongst others (Maxwell et al 2001: 738). A difficulty in the hotel industry, however, is the importance of providing both quality product and service, as both are integral to the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s experience (Haynes and Fryer 2000: 240). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCustomer servi ce is the only area over which the hotelÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s product can be clearly differentiated from its major competitorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ productsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Haynes and Fryer 2000: 240). Therefore, to increase market share and remain competitive in the corporate lodging sector, hotels must focus on service quality. Service quality, defined more fully later in the review of literature, is the ability of a hotel to meet or exceed the expectations of its clientele regarding service provision. Loyalty is the result of high service quality, the repeat patronage of customers to a hotel. It is the front office personnel that often have the most impact on the corporate customer. Jones and Haven-Tang (2005) conclude Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âultimately, responsibility for high quality service provision rests with front-line staffÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (7). Similarly, McColl-Kennedy and White (1997) report that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe behaviours of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"front lineÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ service providers are crucial to the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s evaluation of the service (249). Haynes and Fryer (2000) report that customer exchanges and relationships with staff have a strong impact on hotel branding, and contribute directly to repeat patronage (241). This research seeks to consider what factors impact customer loyalty amongst business hotel travellers. It therefore provides a review of available literature on the service quality of front office personnel, and the impact of this quality on customer loyalty amongst the corporate traveller. As such, considerations of service quality and customer loyalty as a whole are undertaken, followed by specific consideration of the corporate traveller and three specific research questions addressing how hotels can boost customer loyalty in this customer group. RESEARCH QUESTIONS This examination of literature, therefore, seeks to address three specific questions related to how hotels might boost performance through the serv ice quality of their front office personnel: How strongly does training impact service quality, specifically in regards to the quality attributes that most increase corporate loyalty? What is the impact of technology on service quality in relation to corporate customers? How does employee empowerment effect service quality to corporate customers? These three questions were selected because the researcher hypothesises that these three components are key to the establishment of service quality, and the loyalty that results from high customer satisfaction, in the corporate hotel customer. It is anticipated the results of this research will establish the importance of these three components. LITERATURE REVIEW The first area to be considered in this review of literature is a more complete definition of service quality, as many exist. Chung (1998) provides the following definition: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âQuality is the degree to which a product or service conforms to a set of predetermined standards related to the characteristics that determine its value in the marketplace and its performance of the function for which it was designedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (190). Candido (2005) asserts that service quality must focus specifically on strategy and its use in meeting and exceeding customer needs (3). This is reinforced by Buttle and Bok (199 6), who contend that the theory of reasoned action reveals service quality to be directly related to hotel customer expectations (10). McColl-Kennedy and White (1997) elaborate that customer satisfaction in terms of hotel service is typically an emotional response towards what was experienced in comparison to what was expected. If the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s perception is that service met or exceeded expectations, he or she experiences satisfaction, if expectations are not at least met, he or she is dissatisfied (250). Other theorists support this expectation-based view of service quality. For example, Johns and Tyas (1997) assert Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âService quality is generally visualised as the sum of customer perceptions of the service experienceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (474). Similarly, Gould-Williams (1999) states that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âservice quality is generally conceptualised as the gap between consumers expectations about a service and their subsequent perception of service perfor manceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (101). For practical purposes, literature in the topic breaks down service quality into specific categories for consideration. Citing Crane and Lynch (1988), Gould-Williams (1999) lists the areas of responsiveness, competence, courtesy, and interpersonal skills as impacting on service quality (99). Johns and Tyas (1997) breaks service quality into five attributes: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âtangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (477). Matzler et al (2004) takes a broader view, using three categories. Basic factors, or dissatisfiers, are the minimum and entirely expected expectations of the customer. If these are not met, regardless of other service provisions, the customer will be dissatisfied (Matzler et al 2004: 1183). Performance factors are possible expectations, and may lead to increased or decreased satisfaction if provided or not provided, respectively. These factors are desired by the customer but not recognised as foundati onal to the service provision. Excitement factors increase customer satisfaction if provided by are not expected, and therefore do not decrease satisfaction if not provided (Matzler et al 2004: 1183). The most common categorization, however, is based on the research of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985, 1986). They originally identified ten factors, later reduced to five, that could be used in the definition and measurement of service quality: understanding, service standards, service performance, communications, and service quality (Tsang 2000: 317). Their service quality model is based on a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"gapsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ theory, where the size and direction of each gap impacts the overall quality perception of the guest. For example, service performance measures the difference between the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s expectations of service quality and the service actually provided (Tsang 2000: 317). Their model provides equal weighting across the five categorise, an assumption challenged by Gould-Williams (1999), who reports that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âeven though products and services consist of many attributes, consumers tend to base their overall perception of quality on just a few attributes or in some cases just oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (98). Defining customer demographics and desires can define their expectations of service Inbakaran and Jdackson (2005) concur, concluding that it is often the customer group that determines which factors are most impacting on service quality (59). They conclude that grouping customers by demographics and desires can accurately predict their expectations of service (Inbakaran and Jdackson 2005: 59). In the corporate arena, as in the hotel industry as whole, Harrington and Akehurst (2000) find that quality Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âhas replaced price as the determining factor in consumer choiceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (134). Literature further supports that this focus on quality must lead to a continued consideration of the issue, with quality improvement being an ongoing aim of the hotel organisation (Chung 1998: 189). Customer loyalty is the result of high service quality and other factors that meet or exceed customer expectations. When a business traveller books again and again at the same hotel, he or she displays loyalty to that organisation. Importantly for business travel, this loyalty typically transfers to the overall hotel brand, so that experience of high service quality at one branch location improves the repeat patronage across all brand locations (Buswell and Williams 2003: 47). Conversely, experience that does not satisfy basic factors and possibly even performance factors at one location may decrease loyalty across the brand (Buswell and Williams 2003: 47). Cano (2001) finds all the factors required for the building of a hotelÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s customer loyalty to be dependent on service quality: service that meets or exceeds expectations, delivered dependably and accurately helpful and prompt staff who are knowledgeable and courteous, conveying trust and confidence the provision of caring, individualised attention and the maintenance of links with the customer during acts of service delivery Inbakaran and Jdackson (2005) assert Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âIt is an established fact that in the hospitality industry repeat patronage is directly related to the service quality and focused customer serviceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (53). However, they also note that customer service experience and the loyalty resulting from positive experiences is based to some extent on the segment of the hotel customer to whom the hotel is appealing (Inbakaran and Jdackson 2005: 57). That is, the service quality factors important to business travellers, such as immediate delivery of messages and concierge services, may not be as impacting on the perception of service quality in other customer groups. It can be difficult, however, to measure or assess service quality. First, as service quality is an experience between two or more people there are an uncountable number of factors that may play a role (Erto and Vanacore 2002: 165). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âMeasuring service quality is a very complex task because of the p eculiarities embodied in the service product itself a service is hardly reproduced consistently and exactly, because of the variability of service from time to time and from one customer to anotherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Erto and Vanacore 2002: 165). Citing numerous sources, Gould-Williams (1999) similarly conclude there are a myriad of variables that can be considered, and ways in which service quality has attempted to be measured (100). However, a number of tools and methods have been used to assess service quality. The most common is the use of a style of customer questionnaire known as a SERVQUAL (Johns and Tyas 1997: 475). This is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âone of the most widely accepted mcasures of service qualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in the leisure industry today (Gould-Williams 1999: 102). Based on the work of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry previously mentioned, this questionnaire is created using specific attributes of service quality designated by the hotel organisation. These typically rang e from fifteen to twenty-five areas, but can include thirty-five or more quality attributes (Tsang 2000: 319). Customers are asked to scale the quality they expected from each specific service attribute listed, then similarly scale the quality they actually experienced in the service performance of that attribute (Johns and Tyas 1997: 475). Such measures are important because the perceived factors important in customer service have been found to be different for staff and customers. For example, in one study staff ranked politeness as the most important factor, but this was seventh on the list for customers. Personal attention was most important to the customers, but ranked eleventh by staff (McColl-Kennedy and White 1997: 255). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âClearly, customers and employees have very different expectations from the customer service encounterÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (McColl-Kennedy and White 1997: 255). Critical incident analysis is another form of evaluating service quality. This metho d does not examine the day-to-day interaction of staff and customers as much as focuses on the few specific encounters found to be most impacting on the overall perception of service quality (Johns and Tyas 1997: 477). Blum (1997) finds that the information such assessments provide to management can be excellent in revealing areas of high and low quality service (351). Although Bare and Turkel (2003) contend that inspection such as is provided by Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âmystery shoppersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã or anonymous inspectors is important to quality service provision (32), Chung (1998) finds that inspection does not improve quality (191). Chung argues that quality must be built into the service system, that to measure it by inspection reduces quality factors to those specific to an individual or situation and therefore is of little use in the long-term (Chung 1998: 191). A good system does much to elimintate potential problems before they impact service quality (Chung 1998: 191). One w ay of creating such a system, and in turn measuring the quality of service provision, is benchmarking. Benchmarking is described as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe search for industry best practices that will lead to superior performanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Cano et al 2001: 974). In the tourism industry, this is theorised to be undertaken using a six-step model: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdecide what to benchmark, understand internal processes, decide on best in class, collect data, analyse results, and implement actionsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Cano et al 2001: 975). This is not an exclusive methodology, however. Some researchers have combined benchmarking with SERVQUAL assessment, developing the questionnaire based on benchmarking findings and using it o fulfil the data collection step of the benchmarking process. Specific to corporate loyalty, business travellers do so more regularly and repeatedly visit the same locations than other customer groups (Buswell and Williams 2003: 47). Accommodations are also likely made for an entire organisation by one individual or group, increasing the importance of word-of-mouth and the satisfactory experiences of each traveller. As such, the experience of service quality the corporate customer has at one hotel has more impact on the overall hotel organisation than the impact of the typical tourist customer (Buswell and Williams 2003: 47). Corporate loyalty tends to be collective, the combined experiences of all the travellers in the organisation. Customer loyalty is vitally important in this customer sector, as it Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âgives improved opportunities for identifying customers and provides a means of closing the service gap by improving communication between service provider and consumerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Cano et al 2001: 976). The number of similar hotels catering to the corporate customer similarly makes Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"hardÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ standards less relevant, such as whether the bathroom is clean or the lights function. Instead, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"softÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ standards, such as are embodied in service quality, that make the business traveller feel like a special guest, are more likely to contribute to repeat patronage (Erto and Vanacore 2002: 167). Gould-Williams (1999) finds that corporate customersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã behavioural intentions are not only influenced by global assessments of perceived service quality and value but are also affected by specific employee performanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and that the latter more likely to lead to increased loyalty (101). In the business sector particularly, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe correlation between service quality and employee performance remains highÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Gould-Williams 1999: 108). Of the employee groups, restaurant and front office staff were found to have the most direct impact on guest loyalty (Gould-Williams 1999: 111). One factor which this research anticipates to strongly impact service quality and loyalty is front office training. L ashley (2005) finds that skill gaps in front office personnel correlates highly to lower service quality and customer satisfaction, which is has been shown would reduce loyalty (189). Maxwell et al (2001) go as far as to assert, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âQuality customer service is clearly an imperative of Scottish tourism; staff training is the route to achieving and maintaining this qualityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (743). Bare and Turkel (2003) found that hotel companies who increased training in times of workforce cuts and other economic hardship were more likely to remain profitable than those that did not, and a year later showed 80% higher profits than the latter group (32). In one study, a training programme implemented as part of greater HRM scheme improved customer satisfaction 13% in first quarter after implementation, and rose for two additional quarters, after which it remained high (Haynes and Fryer 2000: 246). Harrington and Akehurst (2000) found that cross-training and increased training improved service provision (151). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âBy equipping workers with the necessary skills and capabilities, they are in a better position to develop strong cross-functional links and provide high quality service in response to customer demands for greater flexibilityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Harrington and Akehurst 2000: 151). Unfortunately, literature reports training to be underemphasised by many hotel organisations. McColl-Kennedy and White (1997) report from focus groups with a number of hotels that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ârelatively little emphasis is given to staff training in terms of customer serviceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âin all but two hotels, training consisted of the initial induction program, a monthly meeting of departmental staff, and a meeting with their respective supervisor once every three months to review their performanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (McColl-Kennedy and White 1997: 258). Also, in difficult times training is often one of the first areas to be scaled back in the typical hotel, and this is a mistake. Bare and Turkel (2003) argue that softness in occupancy and average daily rate should lead to an increase in training (Bare and Turkel 2003: 32). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âIn these difficult times, the hotel companies that spend the most on better employee selection, training, and mystery shopping services will win the prizeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Bare and Turkel 2003: 32). However, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âorganizations that recognize the importance of service encounters and in particular the interactions between front line service providers and their customers spend considerable effort, time and other resources in training their employees in service encountersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (McColl-Kennedy and White 1997: 249). The Ritz-Carlton, for example, provides at least one hundred hours of training for each employee per year. (McColl-Kennedy and White 1997: 249). Bare and Turkel (2003) assert Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã better training helps find better employees and keeps the go od onesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (32). Garavan (1997) finds that social skills training in particular has a positive impact on Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe quality of customer service within a hotel environmentÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (75). Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThese findings suggest that social-skills training of front-line employees may lead to improved quality of service, in the short term at least. demonstrate the linkage between the power of behaviour change and service effectiveness (Garavan 1997: 75). In addition, he concludes that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âtraining and development can be used to reinforce certain behaviours and attitudes which contribute to effective service while stressing the need for improvement in behaviours which do not facilitate the attainment of desired service quality goalsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Garavan 1997: 75). Technology was surprisingly found to have little impact on customer experience of quality, satisfaction, or loyalty, according to literature. Technology has been found to decrease the need for business travel, as the internet, conference calling and the like now replace many business meetings (Buswell and Williams 2003: 95). This further tightens an already highly competitive hotel industry. Use of technology has also increased competition in that business travellers can now book online, increasing the opportunities for local individual hotels to compete with larger, branded organisations (Buswell and Williams 2003: 95). Branded hotel chains could use computer databases of previous customers to improve personalisation of service to business customers, whilst an independent hotel could not. However, few hotels seem to be capitalising on this area of competitive advantage (Buswell and Williams 2003: 95). Business travellers, however, seem more interested in how service is provided, rather than whether or not technology is employed. Jones and Tang (2005) find that although the physical portion of the product impacted by technology is important, the human elem ent of service still carries the day in respect to corporate loyalty (7). Blum (1997) reviewed 109 articles in hotel and restaurant industry publications over a six-year period, and found that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdespite massive investment by hotel operators in information technology, evidence of improved employee productivity is scantÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (352). They do find, however, that many hotels are implementing technology to improve guest experience, such as speeding up check in and out, providing online booking, and similar (Blum 1997: 352). More current literature does not indicate, however, that technology has a strong impact on overall customer satisfaction and loyalty. In contrast, the literature reviewed strongly supports the impact of employee empowerment on improved service and resulting loyalty. Garavan (1997) fond that situational factors strongly influence the success of interpersonal interactions (73). As such, the empowered employee can respond to specific situations i n a way that most effectively meets or exceeds the needs of the customer. Employees who are cross-trained and empowered to make circumstantial decisions themselves have been found to be not only more productive, but more motivated as they have a greater sense of involvement with the hotel in which they work (Harrington and Akehurst 2000: 151). Merrick (2000), for example, gives an example of a front office worker who loaned a guest an evening gown (the guest had forgotten hers). This type of decision-making ability and customer focus is only available where employees are empowered to act in situations not spelled out by organisation guidelines. The businesswoman in question reports her intention to continue to patronise this hotel. Buttle and Bok (1996) draw attention to the need of hotel organisations Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âto develop systems and processes which are guest-friendly, and which enable staff to identify, and exceed guestsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ routine expectations of hotel per formanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (10). They assert that hotels Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âshould consider empowering customer-contact employees to do whatever is necessary to meet customer requirementsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âbe pro-active in enhancing the interactive quality of the guest experience,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã concluding Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âit is the quality of the guest-employee interactive experience in the hotel that determines whether there will be repeat businessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Buttle and Bok 1996: 10). Harrington and Akehurst (2000) find that often the departmentalisation of larger hotels, like those brands typically catering to the business traveller, leads to reduced empowerment of front office personnel and lower customer satisfaction (149). They conclude that formal structure that cannot be overridden to meet customer expectations impedes integration and service quality (Harrington and Akehurst 2000: 149). Cross-training and increasing the decision-making allowances for front office staff, particularly in areas that are not covered by specific guidance, both improves productivity and quality (Harrington and Akehurst 2000: 149). They conclude that employee resourcefulness has a high correlation with loyalty. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe effective delivery of service quality rests on the degree to which employees manage the interface with customers,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âtheir competencies and skills in effecting such a task are strongly related to both the quality and degree of training offered by the organisation, and also to the extent to which management distributes power and authority within the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Harrington and Akehurst 2000: 150). Overall, employee satisfaction is found to be both higher when workers are empowered, and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âone of the most important drivers of quality, customer satisfaction and productivityÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Matzler et al 2004: 1179). CONCLUSIONS Findings of this research reveal that training and empowerment are both documented in research to strongly impact service quality for corporate customers. As such, they are similarly important factors in the creation of customer loyalty in this traveller group. As corporate clients typically patronise larger organisations that market to their specific customer demographic, implementation of strategies that increase the training level and circumstantial decision-making functions of front office personnel are likely not only to boost loyalty at individual hotel locations but across the brand, and for multiple customers from the same firm or organisation. Technology was not found to have a substantial impact on the business traveller. Whilst literature acknowledges an effect of technological advancements on a number of functions within the average hotel, most of these are found to be of significantly less importance than the human impact on service quality in the literature reviewed. As such, hotel organisations would be advised to concentrate quality initiatives on improving training for front office staff and to implement systems in which these workers have some decision-making responsibility by which they can best respond to and exceed the needs and wants of their corporate customers. REFERENCES Bare, M. and Turkel, S. 2003. Superior Service Sells Guestrooms. Lodging and Hospitality, May 2003: 32. Blum, S. 1997. Current concerns: a thematic analysis of recent hospitality industry issues. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 9(7): 350Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"361. Buswell, J. and Williams, C. 2003. Service Quality in Leisure and Tourism. Oxfordshire: CABI. Buttle, F. and Bok, B. 1996. Hotel marketing strategy and the theory of reasoned action. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(3): 5Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"10. Candido, C. 2005. Service Quality Strategy Implementation: A Model and the Case of the Algarve Hotel Industry. Total Quality Management, 16(1 ): 3Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"14. Cano, M., Drummond, S., Miller, C. and Barclay, S. 2001. Learning from others: benchmarking in diverse tourism enterprises. Total Quality Management, 12(78): 974- 980. Chung, C. 1999. It is the process: A philosophical foundation for quality management. Total Quality Management, 10(2): 187-197. Dale, B.G., Wu, P., Zairi, M., Williams, A.R. and Van Der Wiele, T. 2001. Total quality management and theory: An exploratory study of contribution. Total Quality Management, 12(4): 439- 449. Erto, P. and Vanacore, A. 2002. A probabilistic approach to measure hotel service quality. Total Quality Management, 13(2): 165-174. Garavan, T.M. 1997. Interpersonal skills training for quality service interactions. Industrial and Commercial Training, 29(3): 70Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"77. Gould-Williams, J. 1999. The Impact of Employee Performance Cues on Guest Loyalty, Perceived Value and Service Quality. The Service Industries Journal, 19(3): 97-118. Harrington , D. and Akehurst, G. 2000. An Empirical Study of Service Quality Implementation. The Service Industries Journal, 20(2): 133-156. Haynes, P. and Fryer, G. 2000. Human resources, service quality and performance: a case study. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(4): 240-248. Inbakaran, R. and Jackson, M. 2005. Understanding resort visitors through segmentation. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 6(1): 53-71. Johns, N. and Tyas, P. 1997. Customer Perceptions of Service Operations:Gestalt, Incident or Mythology? The Service Industries Joumal, 17(3): 474-488. Jones, B. and Haven-Tang, C. 2005. Tourism SMEs, Service Quality And Destination Competitiveness. In B. Jones and C. Haven-Tang (eds). Tourism SMEs, Service Quality and Destination Competitiveness: International Perspectives. Oxfordshire: CABI. 1-24. Lashley, C. 2005. Insights into Skill Shortages and Skill Gaps in Tourism: a study in Greater Manchester. In B. Jones and C. Haven-Tang (eds). Tourism SMEs, Service Quality and Destination Competitiveness: International Perspectives. Oxfordshire: CABI. 183-196. Matzler, K. Fuchs, M. and Schubert, A.K. 2004. Employee Satisfaction: Does Kanos Model Apply? Total Quality Management, 15(9-10): 1179-1198. Maxwell, G.A., MacRae, M., Adam, M. and MacVicar, A. 2001. Great expectations: Investors in People in Scottish tourism. Total Quality Management, 12(6): 735- 744. McColl-Kennedy, J. and White, T. 1997. Service provider training programs at odds with customer requirements in five-star hotels. The Journal of Services Marketing, 11(4): 249-264. Merrick, N. 2000. Immaculate Reception. People Management, November 2000, 46-48. Meyer, A., Chase, R., Roth, A., Voss, C., Sperl, K.U., Menor, L. and Blackmon, K. 1999. Service competitiveness: An international benchmarking comparison of service practice and performance in Germany, UK and USA. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 10(4): 369-379. Tsang, N . 2000. Service quality in Chinas hotel industry: a perspective from tourists and hotel managers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(5): 316-326. Worsfold, P. 1999. HRM, performance, commitment and service quality in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11(7): 340-348.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
The Feminine Quest in Surfacing and Song of Solomon Margaret Atwood in her novel Surfacing and Toni Morrison in her novel Song of Solomon require their heroines to pass through a stage of self-interpretation as a prerequisite for re-inventing the self. This stage in the feminine journey manifests a critical act typically absent in the traditional male journey, and one that places Atwood and Morrisons heroines at odds with the patriarchal community. If authors of feminine journeys meet the requirements set out by feminist critics like Dana Heller, then we must also provide a method for interpreting the texts that will be palatable for critics from the patriarchy. Otherwise we perpetuate an hostility between the camps thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But as conditions in real life changed, the structure and impact of the old stories failed to keep pace, and we found ourselves with a confusing mismatch of perceived roles and desired roles. The revised male journey became flight from women and from the influence of others - according to Heller - thus creating the literary label of anti-hero (24). He still journeyed, but he kept the boon to himself (it was a lesser one anyway). If for some reason he does pass back through his sponsoring community, he is not received as a prince returning home.. The revised female journey became more fully hers, but like the male anti-hero, the Jane Eyres and Emma Bovarys become social outcasts and outlaws for refusing to remain in their duly assigned roles. For a satisfactory conclusion to these stories, the audience required death or marriage - still generally portrayed as a final submission to patriarchal authority. Dana Heller tells us now that Womens quests must propose strategies for escaping debilitating structures, for discovering authentic selfhood, and for claiming the right to take her journey out into the world (13). Heller expresses here an imperative to current and future writers of the feminine journey to generate stories that accord the heroine
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the controversy over whether Global Warming there is two sides in which people can choose either human caused or just Mother Nature doing her thing. Most scientists will tell you that Global Warming is mostly the cause of humans. While there are some who will disagree and say that it is just nature doing what it has done for thousands of years. For most scientists the topic of global warming is one that is caused by us humans. They have many facts data to back this up. Some examples of these facts and data are the change in CO2 levels in the atmosphere, the rapid increase in temperature, stronger storms such as hurricanes, melting ice caps, decrease in permafrost, and the Larsen A B ice shelves. These are some of the biggestÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As hurricanes come over warmer waters they gain strength. Over the past 30 years the intensity of hurricanes has doubled over the past 30 years, according to multiple studies. As the temperatures of our oceans increase in tempera ture hurricanes will continue to gain strength and continuously intensify over the next few years. The increase in ocean temperatures doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just affect things above the surface it also affect life underneath. As temperatures increase it directly affects the coral, by interfering with the coralÃ¢â¬â¢s process involved in photosynthesis. Without photosynthesis the coral and zooxanthellae wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to take the nitrogen waste that the coral produces and turns the sunlight into sugar, which makes up 98% of the coralÃ¢â¬â¢s food. When the temperatures rise the coral then reacts and split with their mutualistic algae and the coral then turns white. The process in which the coral turns white is called bleaching. Without coral reefs hundreds of thousands of marine life that rely on coral reefs will eventually die along with the reefs. In the debate of Global Warming in my opinion humans are the main cause. And some more of how this can be attributed to us is the t hawing of permafrost, and melting ice caps. Permafrost is a big example because places where permafrost can be found is also where some towns and communities are built, right on top of the permafrost. WhenShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Of Global Warming894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Debate of Global Warming Climate change is a hot-button topic in politics, conversation, and education. Both sides of the ongoing debate claim disastrous consequences. On one hand, the view of an economic focus could make the market worse. On the other, the end of life as we know it. This is a comparison essay between Al Gore s documentary a vocal advocate for global warming reform and a film made by deniers. In the film Unstoppable Solar Cycles: Rethinking Global warming. The creators expressRead MoreThe Debate On Global Warming1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGlobal Warming Argumentive Essay Both Al Gore and Daniel Botkin have different arguments on global warming. They are both think very similar on the same topic. Because one part of the argument is serious, and the other one is not so much. But, the point is that both of their stories are pointing out to their views on this issue. But, according to Webster Dictionary, Global Warming is when the increase in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature that is to believe to increase by carbon dioxide. Both of the authorsRead MoreThe Debate On Global Warming1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontroversy concerning global warming. The controversy takes the form of public debate that centers on five issues (Mazo 30). The first issue is whether or not global warming is occurring. The second issue is whether global warming is real and extent it has occurred in the recent decades. The third question relates to the causes of global warming. The fourth question centers on the effects of global warming. The fifth question is whether any action nee ds to be taken to contain global warming. The author concursRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe global warming debate has been at the top of the list for environmentalists increasingly over the last twenty years. The controversy of global warming is either considered due to human activity or natural causes. Although the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate and temperatures have changed, that does not mean it is humanly caused. Despite the pretense linking the association between man and global warming, which is heavily supported by consensus of scientists, eco-sensitive politicians, and the effort to restrictRead MoreThe Debate over Global Warming1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesproduction of this age, our population releases environmentally harmful substances like greenhouse gases into the air every day. In recent decadesÃ¢â¬â¢ findings, these substances have been found to trap heat in the atmosphere over time, contributing to global warming. To cut these emissions completely would bankrupt the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s struggling, industry-dependent economy. Knowing that this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a threat that will peak in our life time or even the next generationÃ¢â¬â¢s causes political progression to move slowly. IfRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesclimate change debate has been ongoing for nearly thirty years now, the debate is over the causation(s) of global warming. Temperatures on earth have increased approximately 2.0Ã °F since the early 20th century. Levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane have drastically increased within the atmosphere. Both sides within the debate surrounding global climate change can agree on these points. However; disagree on a number of other possible causations of global warming. Even though thereRead MoreEssay on The Global Warming Debate768 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Global Warming Debate We are polluting the atmosphere and with an increasingly wide range of polluting substances and these are due to the fact that there are now so many people and their human activities are altering the chemical compositing of the atmosphere through the buildup of gases. By the end of this article, you will start to wonder about what this is doing to our world. What is global warming? Global warming takes place because human activitiesRead MoreUnderstanding the Global Warming Debate2393 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pageschanging tides and atmospheric circulation, affects the global climate (Cunningham Cunningham, 2009, p.205). Scientific studies suggest that all these played a role in past global warming and cooling periods. At this time there is no debate that the earth is warming. However, there is serious debate over the causes, extent, and consequences of the warming (Easton, 2009, p.156). There is conflict on whether humans are causing a global warming that could be disastrous to humans and all species ofRead MoreThe Debate Over Global Warming2192 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEveryone has their own thoughts about global warming, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not real or itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late for humans to fix the issue, the list goes on. The global warming debate would not be so heated if it didn t involve politics and it just reverted back to simple science. With many people looking to blame someone or something itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard for politics and science not to collide. Below i will focus on how politics are lacking in effort to stop global warming between the huge oil companies having more influence overRead MoreThe Global Warming Debate On Our World880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesour species and plants; Human activity is to blame. However, since 2012 Fox news has been reporting that global warming is fake and that it is not caused by human activity but rather by natural causes. Further, this global warming debate has been an ongoing battle between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. In 2012 during Obamas second run for presidency, the global warming debate went on full blast. That year Obama had announced a series of executive actions to reduce carbon pollution
The subject to describe is policing organizations at various levels. The author will identify, compare, and contrast the policing function at the local, state, and federal organizational levels (CJA/484 Ã¢â¬â Criminal Justice Administration Capstone). The author will analyze how the organizational, management, administration, and operational functions at the local, state, and federal levels are similar or different and why (CJA/484 Ã¢â¬â Criminal Justice Administration Capstone). The leadership characteristics and responsibilities pertaining to each organizational level will be identified (CJA Ã¢â¬â Criminal Justice Administration Capstone). According to Walker Katz (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"American policing is a highly fragmented organization. Law enforcement in the United States is a large and extremely complex enterprise. Almost 18,000 federal, state, and local agencies exist along with a private security industry that employs over a million additional people. Currently there is no formal centralized system that exists for coordinating or regulating all the different agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. Ã¢â¬ The government agencies at the local level of law enforcement include the Municipal police, County police, and County sheriffs. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Management and Operations or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The state levels of law enforcement include the state police, and the Bureau of criminal investigations. The federal levels of law enforcement include federal law enforcement agencies and the Military law enforcement, such as the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice. These two departments have several branches, such as the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, Drug Enforcement Agency, Bureau of Immigration, and Customs Enforcements, Federal Bureau of Investigations, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Transportation Security Administration, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Secret Service, the United States Marshals Service, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, which fall under the respected departments. Included under law enforcement agencies are also special district police, which includes public schools, transit police, college, university police, and private security firms (Walker Katz, 2008). The municipal police departments are also referred to as city police. City police departments play a major role within the community. Municipal police departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s police officers are sworn in and have the heaviest responsibilities when dealing with serious crimes and the citizens in the neighborhoods in which the officers patrol. Municipal police officers are responsible for various maintenance problems and emergency services such as responding to minor disturbances, noncriminal events, public disturbances, traffic enforcement, routine patrol, and other miscellaneous calls (Walker Katz, 2008). County police departments have police officers who serve as municipal police officers but they operate on a countywide basis; however, these officers do not have the non-law enforcement roles of the county sheriff. County sheriffs are elected in office except for in two states Rhode Island and Hawaii. County sheriffs have a unique role because they serve the three components of the criminal justice system: courts, law enforcement, and corrections. County sheriff department personnel roles and responsibilities include routine patrol, crime investigation, enforcement of traffic laws, process serving, court security, jail operations, and search and rescue (Walker Katz, 2008). According to Walker Katz (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"Special district police agencies such as some university campus and college police officers serve government agencies however the special district police agencies have their own police force. Most of the officers who are part of the special district agency are state certified law enforcement agents. Officers of the special district police agencies are sworn officers that are certified by the state, have the right to make general arrest, and participate in the Federal Bureau of Investigations Uniform Crime Report Systems. Many universities and college campuses opt out of government agency officers and choose to have private security of their choice. Ã¢â¬ Private security firms include private agencies security personnel, which is privately employed by the firm as part or full-time employees. The roles and responsibilities of these officers are patrolling and providing protection at public and private housing complexes, office complexes, malls, gaming officers and investigators, loss prevention specialists, patrol services, and armored patrol services. Different from police agencies the private security agencies focus on more than crime they deal with property, consumer satisfaction, and personal assets. The private police organizations can ban people from establishments, fire employees, and pursue prosecution in criminal courts. Also included in private security is the red light and speed enforced cameras designed to ticket people caught speeding and running red lights Walker Katz, (2008). State law enforcement agencies consist of three categories: state investigative agencies, highway patrols, and state police. State police have statewide police powers for criminal investigations and traffic regulation. Highway patrol officers have the right to arrest non-traffic violators within their jurisdiction and enforce traffic regulations statewide. State law enforcement agencies have the primary responsibility for enforcing traffic laws throughout the state on the highways; however, the state law enforcement agencies patrol concurrently with local police. The responsibilities of state law enforcement agencies vary in different states; some state law enforcement agencies have the responsibility of training recruits and operating training academies Walker Katz, (2008). The federal law enforcement agency is more complex and smaller than the local level agencies and differs in the roles and responsibilities of the personnel. The employees at the federal law enforcement level do not respond to 911 calls or local disturbances. The Customs and Border Protections are responsible for ensuring that cargo entering the United States is legal. It works to prevent weapons of mass destruction, illegal immigrants, diseased plants, and animals, and the smuggling of drugs across the border. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for enforcing custom and immigration laws, along with protecting federal buildings, Marines, and air enforcement (Walker Katz, (2008). The Federal Emergency Management Agency shares the responsibility of coordinating with private, government, and nonprofit organizations to manage emergency preparedness. The Transportation Security Administration has the responsibility for protecting the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s transportation systems. The United States Coast Guard is responsible for security missions that may be related to security. Some roles responsible by the Coast Guard are the waterways, ports, and coastal security. The United States Secret Service is responsible for providing protection for the former and current presidents, vice presidents, and their immediate family members. The Secret Service also deals with money laundering and computer fraud (Walker Katz, (2008). Under the Department of Justice the Drug Enforcement Administration sector is responsible for enforcing federal regulations and laws concerning controlled substances. The Federal Bureau of Investigations focuses on preventing terrorist attacks. The United States Marshall Office is responsible for housing federal detainees, providing security to federal courts, and conducting fugitive investigations and placing eligible people in the witness protection program. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives are responsible for investigating firearm trafficking, enforcing federal firearm laws, preventing criminals and terrorists from possessing explosives, ensuring that individuals who possess explosives are properly licensed, and enforcing federal laws in the collection of federal taxes on alcohol and tobacco products (Walker Katz, (2008). The author has identified, compared, and contrasted policing functions at the local, state, and federal organizational levels. The organizational, management, administration, and operational functions at the local, state, and federal levels have been analyzed to find the similarities and differences in the three organizational levels. The leadership characteristics of any criminal justice professional should.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
HIV/AIDS in aged populace There have been increased cases in HIV/AIDS in the aged people who have already attained sixty years and above. This has been promoted by the wrong perception of the belief that as people age, the danger of acquiring HIV/AIDS also reduces.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Intervention to Address the Need for Sex Education in an Elderly Population specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is not the case putting into considerations of the rising number of AIDS patients among the elderly, where they have been neglected by those offering sex educations. This has further resulted to low knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS in relation to sex among the elderly thus calling for the need of sex education. The biased perception has led to the elderly adopting sex behaviours which are not safe. Most elderly men frequently engage with young ladies for sex intercourse, thus increasing chances of cont racting HIV/AIDS. Substance abuse by the elderly has been on increase which increases their sexual habits. Most elderly women on post menopause are more vulnerable on contracting HIV due to their thinner vaginal walls and the reduced lubrications. Out of the increased inexpensive commercial sex, there have been increased infections of the virus to the elderly where most of them keep multiple partners. There is a less likelihood of the older people discussing on their sexual habits with their doctors. Sex education is therefore necessary to the elderly which will help in reduction of HIV/AIDS (Bjorklund Bee, 2008). Interaction of sex, gender, and age in the development of psychopathology Psychopathology developments involve the study of abnormal behaviours in relation to their causes and processes that lead to their manifestations. There is therefore a high interaction in the psychopathology development in relation to sex, gender and age. Psychopathology differs across boys and girl s in relation to the sex differences, where boys show externalizing disorder in a higher level as opposed to girls on internalizing disorder. Emotional maladjustment is higher in girls as compared to that of boys, while behavioural problems are higher in boys (PathÃ ©, 2002). Gender influences the responses portrayed by children in relation to their environmental experiences, which includes the disciplinary practices by the parents. Girls are known to be more submissive and in expressing emotion dependence, while boys portray physical aggression and a state of roughness.Advertising Looking for critical writing on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internalizing and externalizing disorders in girls is as a result of permissiveness and parents hostility respectively, opposite to that of the boys on parent hostility and permissiveness respectively. The interaction between age and psychopathology is well expressed as the anxiety disorder which is more numerous during childhood and also in early adolescence. Depressive disorder starts at the late adolescence towards the stages of early adulthood. Thus, anxiety disorders are associated with younger age in all sexes up to around 14 years while mood disorders are high in 15 years and above. Anxiety disorders are higher than mood disorders until the age of 25 years after which the mood disorders cumulate. Barriers used to prevent women from advancing in the workplace; barriers that prevent men from working in the home as the primary caretaker There are barriers which inhibit women from progressing in their work places. Some of barriers include: the positions held by women in work places where most of them hold positions in informal sectors of the financial systems where advancing opportunities are low. The ones employed in large firms are mostly positioned at the lower organizational hierarchies with also low promotion opportunities. Many women are restr icted to access of education at first-rate thus being restricted in job opportunities. Women are always channelled into less complex working positions thus low wages. Social norms and power in organisations exhibit invisible foundations that determine organisation structures keeping women from advancing. Maternal responsibilities where women are involved in child bearing and rearing also act as a barrier to their advancement in workplaces in relation to their little time concentration at work. Men are also primary caretakers at home even though they are faced with barriers which prevent them from carrying out this responsibility. These barriers include: high demand on their workplaces as compared to that of women and society barriers. Society barriers and traditional masculine customs acts as barriers where men are not supposed to be primary caretakers to their children instead they are generally supposed to support them financially.Advertising We will write a custom critical w riting sample on Intervention to Address the Need for Sex Education in an Elderly Population specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At work places there are many rules governing parental leave being stricter to males than in women. The theories that we have studied in class relate with these biases that inhibit women in their advancement at workplaces at the same time barriers preventing men from working at home. Analyze bell hooksÃ¢â¬â¢ article with regard to women and minorities: feminist class struggle Taking unquestionably essential feminist position, Bell Hooks promotes the knowledge of feminist theory as essential portion of the development of self-actualization and the way towards freedom with no restrictions. Hooks targets the young women who just know a little concerning feminism, some who may presuppose that sexism is no longer significant since there are feminist movements in women. The fact is feminism is meant to stop sexist oppression. Hooks acknowledges that the past feminist movements have benefited just the well learned white women, leaving the less on unequal levels when the white women acquired equal powers to those of male counterparts in working positions. The major aim of these movements has not yet been achieved. Hooks provides a linkage on the class division in relation to the behaviour expectations basing on how women are taught in reverence to problem solving. She criticizes the believed notion where specific economic gains of particular affluent women are supposed to be a positive signs in representation of all women. She however argues that liberty of advantaged-class women irrespective of their races requires the persistent subordination of the working women and the disadvantaged poor women. She also illustrates on how feminist liberation connect with social change the most challenging aspect faced by the exclusive class of the elite. She continues to pose a consideration of the link in feminist liberation and social change which proves to be a challenge faced by the elitism class. Hooks clearly explains that money cannot account into freedom if the same finances do not promote the individual well-being (Hooks, 2002). Hooks continually criticizes the power struggle which dominates the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement and thrash efforts in highly literate women who may be well educated. There are also struggles on them that are materially privileged especially the white women with the materially underprivileged women, who by all means do not have easy access to the most considered power class.Advertising Looking for critical writing on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She however argues that strong focal point on competition reduces the sisterhood sense practiced in the current feminist pressure groups. The position of women sexually and economically enhances insufficient participation consciousness of the feminist movements in raising the groups. Hooks acknowledges that feminism commitment has a higher connection to politics where she calls for political solidarity as when women acquired class status which happened to be higher to that of men and failed to conduct different from males, their politics were otherwise undermined. In conclusion, I however agree with Hooks that, men are actually not the problem, the problem lies on the patriarchy, the high male domination and the central focus Ã¢â¬Å"sexism.Ã¢â¬ Hooks however fails to offer practical suggestions on feminist class struggle. It is true that many of the feminism movements have been de-stabilized by the class power struggle attaining more considerations than feminism. When women acqui re class status which they have been longing for, they happen to forget about their struggle to feminism of all women. In this, I agree with Hooks that the only possible solution that will bring about feminist liberation will be attained when the elitism class changes on their vision, otherwise this might be a mere dream. References Bjorklund, B. . Bee, H.L. (2008). The Journey of Adulthood. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall Publishers. Hooks, B. (2002, February 12). Feminist Class Struggle. Web. PathÃ ©, P. E. (2002). Stalking. Crime and Justice , 273-318. 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Sunday, March 15, 2020
Eusebius Ecclesiastical History Book Review Essays Eusebius Ecclesiastical History Book Review Paper Eusebius Ecclesiastical History Book Review Paper History of the Christian Church Title: EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Ecclesiastical History; Complete and Unabridged; Translated by C. F. Cruse Biographical citation: EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Ecclesiastical History; Hendrickson Publishers: Peabody, Massachusetts; 1998. EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Ecclesiastical History is a historical record of the primitive Christian church for the first three centuries that began with the birth of Jesus Christ going through the time of Emperor Constantine taking power in the Roman world leading up to the Council of Nicea. EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ work was completed in A. D. 324. Part of this historical record included many of the Christian doctrines. EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ thesis statement could be stated in his purpose for writing the book that encompassed two parts: 1) Record the ecclesiastical history beginning with Jesus Christ through the apostles in the formulation of the church that focused on the writings and teachings of these apostles and other Christian leaders at that time in contrast to the heretics who were trying to corrupt the church by false teachings; 2) Record the historical devastation that took place in the Jewish nation following the death and resurrection of Christ followed by the martyrdom of Christians at the hands of those in opposition to Christianity. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis, the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s table of contents and my reading of the subsequent chapters lead to the conclusion that all three parts logically relate to one another as Eusebius begins his work starting in a chronological fashion giving much detail to each point. This book was divided into ten books within the larger work itself numbering one through ten with an additional book before Book Nine entitled The Book of Martyrs. The entire work of Eusebius within the eleven books consisted of 264 chapters. In Book One, Eusebius gives the historical data in support of the birth of Christ quoting the Scriptures and secular authorities who affirm and attest to this historical fact. Jesus ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s trial and subsequent crucifixion were given. Interaction between John the Baptist and Jesus Christ was given by Eusebius. What I found most interesting in this book was a translation given by Eusebius from the records of Edessa in which Jesus and King Agbarus had written correspondence (chapter 13). I had never heard of this until I read this book. Eusebius seems convinced that this is authentic. Book Two gave the accounts of the early Christian martyrs (Stephen and James the Just Ã¢â¬â JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ half-brother). The church is organized in Jerusalem and then dispersed due to persecutions. Eusebius heavily references the work of Philo. Eusebius presents good biographical information on James the Just (chapter 23). This book concludes with the events leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem. Book Three gives the horrific account of the destruction of Jerusalem by heavily referencing and quoting Josephus. Eusebius comments on the heresies that are now starting to come into the church that needs to be refuted. Early church fathers Irenaeus, Clement, and others are referenced as they refute these heresies. Eusebius comments several times on the residence and place of death of the apostle John being at Ephesus (chapters 1, 20, 23, 31). Papias is referenced (chapter 39) in which the millennium is discussed. Eusebius disagrees with PapiasÃ¢â¬â¢ view on the millennium being a literal reign of Christ on the earth. Book Four gives more reviews of heresies taking place; churches in Rome and Alexandria are established. Eusebius comments heavily on Dionysius of Corinth along with the writings of Theophilus and Philip of Gortyna. Chapters 14 and 15 are devoted to the life and martyrdom of Polycarp. In chapter 26 there is a listing of the Old Testament books. Book Five is a detailed account of Christians persecuted for their faith. The historical account of BlandinaÃ¢â¬â¢s martyrdom was particularly moving due to her being a young female (chapter 1). Eusebius provides the succession of Roman bishops that came from Irenaeus. Of particular interest to me was chapter 20 in which Eusebius provides the historical link between Polycarp and Irenaeus. The book ends with Paul of SamasotaÃ¢â¬â¢s heresy in which the deity of Jesus is denied (chapter 28). Book Six is a lengthy discourse on the life of Origen that included his biography in addition to his numerous works. It is chapter 8 that gives us the historical account of OrigenÃ¢â¬â¢s self-castration. In chapter 25 Eusebius mentions the tradition that was handed down to him when he states that it is upon Peter that the church of Christ is built. This is roubling for Protestants in their view of the Roman Catholic claims. Book Seven is a continuation of persecutions and new heresies coming into the church (Sabellianism Ã¢â¬â modalism). Paul of Samasota is refuted by Malchion. Many of the people that we are introduced to in this book were personal associates of Eusebius. Eusebius argues against an earthly millennial reign of Christ in his opposition to Nep os in chapter 24. Book Eight is a continuation of persecutions on the Christians throughout the region. The evil of Maxentius and Maximian were painfully detailed in their hatred of Christ and His followers. It is between this book and Book Nine that The Book of Martyrs is inserted. In The Book of Martyrs, Eusebius seems to have in mind the non-literal view of the millennium again when he mentions the Ã¢â¬Å"heavenly JerusalemÃ¢â¬ (Heb 12:22) in chapter 11. Book Nine brings the reader up to the time of Constantine as the decrees against Christianity are revoked. Those leaders that persecuted the Christians are now coming to their own deaths. In Book Ten, chapter 4, Eusebius presents a strong defense of the deity of Christ. Chapter 5 sums up this book with Christians being given the freedom to worship. Eusebius didnÃ¢â¬â¢t directly raise any questions in his historical treatise. Many statements were made as if based upon fact. It can only be assumed by the reader that Eusebius either verified the accuracy of the account or claim or that the tradition passed down to him was satisfactory enough to include it in his Ecclesiastical History. Eusebius relies heavily on the historical accounts of other notable men before and during his life. This would include Philo, Josephus, Origen, and others. Long quotations from Josephus were given throughout the early part of the work in reference to the perils of the Jews. Eusebius takes JosephusÃ¢â¬â¢ account as reliable and accurate. Eusebius seems to give an unbalanced amount of attention to Origen especially in Book Six. Many of the other church fathers were either not mentioned or only briefly referenced. It would appear that Eusebius had a personal bias of Origen being the greatest of the church fathers despite the unorthodox teachings and doctrines that Origen held (universal salvation, the pre-existence of spirits, etc. ). EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ detailed personal accounts of persecution to individuals and the eans by which they were tortured seems to captivate EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ interest. Much of this work reads like FoxeÃ¢â¬â¢s Book of Martyrs, which came much later in history. Maybe it could be said that EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ account of horrific torture and persecution accounts inspired FoxeÃ¢â¬â¢s work that came later. Eusebius is highly critical of the Roman government and its tyranny on Christians. Eusebius is a Christian historian so naturally o ne would expect a scathing presentation of this ungodly empire that inflicted severe persecution on the Christian church and its people for over three centuries. Eusebius is a Christian of strong orthodox faith, which is readably noticed from the beginning of his work to the conclusion. In modern times Eusebius would be considered an ultra- conservative. His theological and ideological bias would today be considered in favor Roman Catholicism with EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢s position on the millennium not being literal, Holy Communion is the literal body and blood of Jesus, and the Christian church being built on the apostle Peter. EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ book offered new discoveries for me that I had never heard mention before (written correspondence between Jesus and Agbarus, relationship of John-Polycarp-Irenaeus, etc. . For the reader that had never studied any church history this work would be a recap of many accounts from the Bible gospels that the Christian would be familiar. Heresies, the demise of the Jews in Jerusalem, persecutions and martyrdoms at the hands of the Romans, and Christian doctrine welcome the novice of Christian history in this work by Eusebius. Eusebius personally knew many of the people that he wrote about in the latter years that were covered in the book. This added strength to the validity of EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ report and claims. EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Ecclesiastical History can be a difficult book to follow depending on whether the reader is reading an abridged or unabridged translation of EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ original writing. The historical account is thorough and technical in places. Many parts of the book leave the reader sitting in suspense as one is taken back in time to the persecutions of individual Christians at the hands of infidels who despise Jesus Christ. One is moved to compassion and a sense of awe-struck respect for those Christians who stood fast and resolute in their faith at the vicious hands of their captors. Much of this information is repetitive throughout the book. Several accounts listed in the book are covered repeatedly throughout the various books and chapters (the residence and death of John the Apostle at Ephesus, etc. ). Eusebius gives special attention to people that would in otherwise never be mentioned outside a work like the one he produced. Other notables in church history prior to A. D. 324 were barely mentioned in regards to the amount of writing that the individual contributed to the Christian faith and community (Tertullian, etc. ). Eusebius provided the Christian reader with a magnificent account of the life and times of the primitive Christian church from the Incarnation of Jesus Christ all the way until A. D. 324 which brought the church to its first council to affirm the deity of Jesus Christ against the heretics who claimed that Jesus Christ was not truly God in substance, essence, and nature with the Father. EusebiusÃ¢â¬â¢ thesis statement at the beginning of the book was fulfilled in its purpose at the conclusion of his work, which Christians today and for all times can be thankful.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Preferential Trade Agreements - Essay Example Though the prime motive behind the formation of these groups was to prevent any form of discrimination among member nations, it is being witnessed that this is not being followed in practice. In fact, existing imbalances on a regional basis have driven nations to form Preferential Trading Arrangements (PTAs) that has been the trend since the past half century. During the same period, it has also been witnessed that there has been a major growth in the degree of multilateral openness within the above organizations. The question being asked by the authors of the paper Mansfield and Reinhardt is as to why nations have relied on preferential liberalization when the prime objective of the above organizations has been to advocate non-discrimination. Additionally, the authors have also performed requisite theoretical and mathematical analysis to determine the various factors that have led to such deviations, which forms a substantial part of the paper currently under review. The major aim of the current review is to analyze the findings, claims and arguments of this paper and to determine the extent to which these claims are justified. On the backdrop of such analysis, the paper attempts to provide a suitable set of recommendations on the basis of which further analysis may be initiated. 2. SUMMARY The authors, by way of the paper, have identified that the international trading system has witnessed a rapid increase in the formation of numerous Preferential Trading Agreements (PTAs). Moreover, the authors have also expressed agreement over the fact that there has been an increased multilateral openness by way of the formation of the GATT and the WTO. However, the authors have expressed that little research has been done for determining how and due to which reasons the multilateral regime has helped in the conception and formation of PTAs by the members of these organizations themselves. The paper claims that the prime reason behind nations preferring for the formation of PTAs is to enhance their bargaining power. The formation of these agreements is perceived as providing the member nations with an opportunity to help them gain strength against any future policies of the GATT/WTO that may not go well with the economic interests of the member states. Moreover, the presence of PTAs provides the member nation with extra muscle that would help it in being more vocal and provide an opportunity to the member for greater market power and share. The authors argue that the past few years has seen a major increase in the number of members of these organizations, thereby making it more and more difficult to allow the organizations to allow at multilateral agreements and hope for any sort of collective actions. In this backdrop, the authors state positively that the formation of PTAs also helps members with similar vested economic interests in solving common problems and achie ving common objectives. In this backdrop, the authors argue that the prime reason for the rise and formation of these preferential agreements is the existence of the GATT/WTO themselves. In